His coworkers praised both his determination and the way he paid attention to detail.

A) and the way he paid attention to detail
B) and also praised his attention to detail
C) and his attention to detail
D) they praised the way he paid attention to detail
E) also they praised his attention to detail

His coworkers praised both his determination and the way he paid attention to detail.

Grammar issue presented: Parallelism (correlative pairs)

This sentence uses the correlative pair “Both…and” to present two characteristics. Both characteristics should be in the same form, but one is a possessive pronoun + noun (his determination), while the other is a phrase (the way he paid attention to detail). We need another possessive pronoun + noun: “his attention to detail.”

A) and the way he paid attention to detail
It is parallel? NO – his determination (pronoun + noun) / the way he paid attention to detail (phrase)

B)
and also praised his attention to detail
Is it parallel? NO – his determination (pronoun + noun) / praised his attention to detail (verb phrase)

C)
and his attention to detail
Is it parallel? YES – his determination (pronoun + noun) / his attention to detail (pronoun + noun)
Additional errors? NO

D)
they praised the way he paid attention to detail
Is it parallel? NO – This choice lacks the second conjunction (and) in the correlative pair Both…and

E) also they praised his attention to detail
It is parallel? NO – This choice lacks the second conjunction (and) in the correlative pair Both…and

(C) is correct.

The art studio is spacious, pleasantly cluttered, and has good lighting.

A) and has good lighting
B) and being well-lit
C) and is lit well
D) and well-lit
E) and the lighting is good

The art studio is spacious, pleasantly cluttered, and has good lighting.

Grammar issue presented: Parallelism (lists of adjectives)

This sentence presents a list of qualities. The first two are adjectives (“spacious” and “pleasantly cluttered”), while the third is a verb phrase (“has good lighting”). The third quality must also be an adjective.

A) and has good lighting
Is it parallel? NO – spacious, pleasantly cluttered (adjectives) : has good lighting (verb phrase)

B) and being well-lit
Is it parallel? NO – spacious, pleasantly cluttered (adjectives) : being well-lit (verb phrase)

C) and is lit well
Is it parallel? NO – spacious, pleasantly cluttered (adjectives) : is lit well (verb phrase)

D) and well-lit
Is it parallel? YES – spacious, pleasantly cluttered (adjectives) : well-lit (adjective)
Additional errors? NO

E) and the lighting is good
Is it parallel? NO – spacious, pleasantly cluttered (adjectives) : the lighting is good (clause)

(D) is correct.

The school board requested that a waiver be obtained and that the residency requirements are reviewed.

A) that the residency requirements are reviewed
B) the residency requirements will be reviewed
C) the residency requirements reviewed
D) to review the residency requirements
E) a review of the residency requirements

The school board requested that a waiver be obtained and that the residency requirements are reviewed.

Grammar issue presented: Parallelism (lists of verbs)

This sentence presents a list of two actions. The first verb, “be obtained,” is in the passive voice and is governed by the idiom “request that x be y.” The second verb must also be in the form (be) reviewed.

A) that the residency requirements are reviewed
Is it parallel? NO – be obtained : are reviewed

B) the residency requirements will be reviewed
Is it parallel? NO – be obtained : will be reviewed

C) the residency requirements reviewed
Is it parallel? YES – be obtained : (be) reviewed
Additional errors? NO

D) to review the residency requirements
Is it parallel? NO – be obtained : to review

E) a review of the residency requirements
Is it parallel? NO – be obtained : a review

(C) is correct.

Some of the many renovations set for Memorial Field in the coming years include building additional seating, improving safety, and the construction of a new varsity athletics center.

(A) and the construction of a new varsity athletics center
(B) and constructing a new varsity athletics center
(C) and also the construction of a new varsity athletics center
(D) and a new varsity athletics center
(E) and a new varsity athletics center under construction

Some of the many renovations set for Memorial Field in the coming years include building additional seating, improving safety, and the construction of a new varsity athletics center.

Grammar issue presented: Parallelism (lists of verbs)

All items in a list must be parallel, meaning they must be in the same grammatical form. Every verb in the list must therefore take on an -ing ending.

A) and the construction of a new varsity athletics center
Is it parallel? NO – building : improving : the construction

B) and constructing a new varsity athletics center
Is it parallel? YES – building : improving : constructing
Additional errors? NO

C) and also the construction of a new varsity athletics center
Is it parallel? NO – building : improving : the construction

D) and a new varsity athletics center
Is it parallel? NO – building : improving : a new varsity athletics center

E) and a new varsity athletics center under construction
Is it parallel? NO – building : improving : a new varsity athletics center

(B) is correct.

Richard is not only a terrific pianist, but also great at playing hockey.

A) Richard is not only a terrific pianist, but also great at playing hockey.
B) Richard not only is a terrific pianist, but is also great at playing hockey.
C) Not only great at playing hockey, Richard also is a terrific pianist.
D) Richard is not only a terrific pianist, but also a great hockey player.
E) Also great at playing hockey, Richard is a terrific pianist.

Richard is not only a terrific pianist, but also great at playing hockey.

Grammar issue presented: Parallelism (correlative pairs)

“Not only…but also” is a correlative pair, so the elements immediately following each conjunction must be parallel.

A) Richard is not only a terrific pianist, but also great at playing hockey.
Is it parallel? NO – a terrific pianist (noun) : great at playing hockey (adjective)

B) Richard not only is a terrific pianist, but is also great at playing hockey.
Is it parallel? NO – is a terrific pianist (verb) : great at playing hockey (adjective)

C) Not only great at playing hockey, Richard also is a terrific pianist.
Is it parallel? NO – great at playing hockey (adjective) / is a terrific pianist (verb)

D) Richard is not only a terrific pianist, but also a great hockey player.
Is it parallel? YES – a terrific pianist (noun) : a great hockey player (noun)
Additional errors? NO

E) Also great at playing hockey, Richard not only is a terrific pianist.
Is it parallel? NO – great at playing hockey (adjective) / is a terrific pianist (verb)

(D) is correct.

The philosophical doctrine of Incompatibility posits an inherent irreconcilability among the doctrine of Determinism, which holds that each state of affairs is necessitated by the states of affairs that preceded it, and the existence of free will.

A) among the doctrine of Determinism, which holds that each state of affairs is necessitated by the states of affairs that preceded it, and the existence of free will
B) between the doctrine of Determinism, holding each state of affairs as necessitated by the states of affairs that preceded it, and free will existing
C) in the doctrine of Determinism, which holds the idea that each state of affairs is necessitated by the states of affairs preceding, and the existence of free will
D) between the doctrine of Determinism, which holds that each state of affairs is necessitated by the states of affairs preceding it, and the existence of free will
E) among the doctrine of Determinism, which holds that each state of affairs may be necessitated by the states of affairs preceding it, and free will existing

The philosophical doctrine of Incompatibility posits an inherent irreconcilability among the doctrine of Determinism, which holds that each state of affairs is necessitated by the states of affairs that preceded it, and the existence of free will.

Grammar issue presented: Word Choice and Parallelism (comparisons)

When comparing only two things, the proper word to use is between, not among, which is used in reference to more than two things. Furthermore, the construction “between x and y” requires that x and y be parallel.

A) among the doctrine of Determinism, which holds that each state of affairs is necessitated by the states of affairs that preceded it, and the existence of free will
Correct word choice? NO – this comparison should use the word “between” (not “among”)
Is it parallel? YES – the doctrine of Determinism (noun phrase) : the existence of free will (noun phrase)

B) between the doctrine of Determinism, holding each state of affairs as necessitated by the states of affairs that preceded it, and free will existing
Correct word choice? YES – this comparison uses the word “between”
Is it parallel? NO – the doctrine of Determinism (noun phrase) : free will existing (verb phrase)

C) in the doctrine of Determinism, which holds the idea that each state of affairs is necessitated by the states of affairs preceding, and the existence of free will
Correct word choice? NO – this choice lacks the word “between”
Is it parallel? YES – the doctrine of Determinism (noun phrase) : the existence of free will (noun phrase)

D) between the doctrine of Determinism, which holds that each state of affairs is necessitated by the states of affairs preceding it, and the existence of free will
Correct word choice? YES – this comparison uses the word “between”
Is it parallel? YES – the doctrine of Determinism (noun phrase) : the existence of free will (noun phrase)

E) among the doctrine of Determinism, which holds that each state of affairs may be necessitated by the states of affairs preceding it, and free will existing
Correct word choice? NO – this comparison should use the word “between” (not “among”)
Is it parallel? NO – the doctrine of Determinism (noun phrase) : free will existing (verb phrase)

(D) is correct.